As a timber supply analyst with the Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development, Doug provides support to statutory decisions, including: the Province of BC Chief Forester’s Allowable Annual Cut (AAC) Determination; the establishment of area based tenures such as Community Forests and First Nations Woodland Licences; the establishment of Wildlife Habitat Areas (WHAs) and Ungulate Winter Ranges (UWRs). Doug co-instructs the UNBC FSTY 408 Forestry Management and Practices course using insights gained from timber supply modeling as to how various objectives inter-relate over space and time. Doug ensures the students realize that resource management is evolving and to understand that it is their responsibility to advocate to improve resource management.
Dr. Burton is interested in disturbance ecology, vegetation dynamics, ecosystem restoration, and sustainable forest management. His research has explored aspects of forest regeneration, seed ecology, plant competition, vegetation succession, stand development modelling, old-growth attributes, forest stand edge effects, and the ecology of understory shrubs. His current work is exploring mechanisms of primary succession on volcanic, landslide and human disturbances, and he is synthesizing information on managing forests for resilience under changing conditions.
Ken Child is a retired biologist having been employed as a Regional Wildlife Biologist with the Ministry of Environment for 18 years and as the Regional Environmental Co-ordinator with BC Hydro in Prince George for 13 years. Ken’s main research interests include moose ecology and socio-biology and their application to moose management, associated harvest strategies and regulations. He continues to investigate the mitigation of both train and vehicle collision mortality of moose in the central interior of BC.
Dr. Connell draws upon his varied experiences in community, economic, and business development to understand the world we live in. David’s research focuses on sustainable communities, with a particular interest in re-creating our food system as a foundation for societal change. He is leading a national study of farmland protection through agricultural land use planning. Other areas of research include socio-economic benefits of farmers markets and protecting BC’s inland temperate rainforest (ancient cedars).
Michelle is the UNBC Program Manager for the Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions (PICS). She has an MSc in forest ecology from UNBC.
Dr. Costello's research interests lie in the application of science-based research to the management and conservation of native fishes in Canada, particularly as it relates to improving the understanding, appreciation, and preservation of wild populations and their habitats. The majority of Allan's research has focused on the area of molecular ecology and conservation genetics of cold-adapted fishes (trout, salmon, and related species).
Dr. Darwyn Coxson is a Professor in the Ecosystem Science and Management Program at the University of Northern British Columbia. His research in plant ecology has focused on the role of lichen communities, and lichen associations such as biological soil crusts, in ecosystem function, measuring parameters such as carbon gain and nitrogen fixation. Dr. Coxson was a co-author of the 2011 UBC Press book “British Columbia’s Inland Rainforest: Ecology, Conservation, and Management”. The work of his research group in the Inland Temperate Rainforest was one of the major factors in the 2016 designation of the new Ancient Forest - Chun T’oh Whudujut Provincial Park, protecting important Ancient Cedar stands and adjacent wetlands in the Robson Valley.
Most of Shannon's experience as well as his current research interests focus on the ecology of wildlife species with emphasis on the mesocarnivore community. These research interests include: habitat ecology and impacts of forest changes, the use of indicator guilds of wildlife species to monitor both landscape and stand-level impacts, the ecological basis of surveys used to assess and monitor wildlife populations, and the ecology and use of aquatic mammals as an indicator of aquatic health.
Russ is an avian ecologist whose interests include determining the important proximate and ultimate factors influencing reproductive effort and success in birds. Specific areas of interest include mate choice, sexual selection, parasitology, and the mediating role that variation in environmental conditions has for the evolution of life-history traits. He holds a PhD from the University of Saskatchewan.
Stephen is investigating the consequences of climate change on the water cycle of northern and alpine regions, including on snow and ice. A major aspect of this research is to develop a better understanding of the water balance in the Fraser River basin based on field studies, remote sensing data and numerical simulations.
Dr. Keith Egger, who obtained his PhD from the University of Victoria, uses molecular approaches to study microbial ecology, biodiversity and phylogeny. His research focuses on the link between biodiversity and ecosystem function, particularly mycorrhizal fungi associated with forest trees. He has participated in numerous research projects on the impacts of disturbance on forest microbial community diversity and function. More recently he is involved in a collaboration to examine the potential of compounds isolated from BC fungi to be used as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents in the treatment of cancer.
Daniel’s research interest is in the genetic characterization of fish originally from the Pacific watershed that migrated through natural events into the Arctic watershed. Two such species are Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni). Rainbow trout are a culturally and recreationally important species for the interior of British Columbia. Due to the recreational importance of this species, however, several of the “preferred” strains have been reared in hatchery systems and stocked throughout the interior.
People profile: http://www.unbc.ca/people/fondahl-dr-gail
Faculty page: http://www.unbc.ca/gail-fondahl
Research page: http://www.unbc.ca/gail-fondahl/research
Dr. Fondahl¹s research focuses on cultural and legal geographies of indigenous territorial rights in the Russian North, where she has carried out extensive field research. Gail also is interested more broadly in sustainability and sustainable development in the Circumpolar North.
Dr. Fredeen is a forest ecophysiologist. His primary research interests include the measurement of net CO2 and H2O vapour fluxes, as well as forest carbon and soil water stocks, in disturbed, managed and unmanaged forests of central British Columbia. Other forest research interests include the contributions of mycoheterotrophic understory plants and lichens to the carbon and nitrogen cycles of northern forests, and the release of suppressed lodgepole pine in MPB-attacked stands. Dr. Fredeen is also engaged in multiple projects to improve local sustainability, such as examinations of food waste at the institutional level.
Todd's current research focuses on the fundamental limnology (nutrient cycling and primary producers) of lakes and rivers, factors that regulate pollutant (particulates, metals, major ions, and synthetic organic compounds) cycling in freshwater systems, the evaluation of watershed restoration initiatives, and the geochemical impacts of land development and river-regulation. He has undertaken research on freshwater systems in central and northern British Columbia, northern Alberta, the western Arctic, and in southern Ontario (Great Lakes) and, as such, has a very broad knowledge regarding issues pertaining to water resources management and research in Canada.
Dr. Gantner works for the BC Ministry of Forests, Lands, and Natural Resource Operations, and Rural Development (FLNRORD) and is an Adjunct Professor in the Environmental Science Program at UNBC. As Senior Fisheries Biologist, Dr. Gantner works towards the conservation of regional fish species (e.g., Nechako White Sturgeon, Bull Trout, Arctic Grayling) and management of fisheries (First Nations and recreational) in the Omineca Region; His broader research interests lie in the interactions amongst biota, their interactions with their abiotic environment, and how this environment is shaped by local and global drivers, or disturbed by stressors (e.g., climate change, pollution, or land use changes). Working collaboratively with UNBC faculty, staff and students, Dr. Gantner aims to bridge FLNRORDs regional Fisheries Program and UNBCs academic and research programs, where opportunities arise.
Dr. Travis G. Gerwing, a.k.a. Dr. Worm, is an ecosystem ecologist who uses invertebrates to assess ecosystem health. Dr. Gerwing's particular area of expertise is using marine invertebrates, especially Polychaete worms, to understand the forces that structure marine ecosystems. Currently, Dr. Gerwing is working to develop an ecosystem model of the Skeena Watershed, from headwater to tidewater. At the moment, Dr. Gerwing has students exploring mudflats near Prince Rupert, remote clam beaches off the north coast, and freshwater locations throughout the Skeena Watershed. This information will be integrated and then expanded (to include mammals, hydrology, plants, etc.) in an effort to develop a holistic ecosystem concept of the entire Skeena Watershed.
Dr. Gillingham has broad interests in population and wildlife ecology, modeling, and behavioural ecology. Much of my work involves the application of quantitative analyses and modeling to aspects of behavioural ecology, and wildlife ecology, and management.
Dr. Green is a forest ecologist with a background in tree physiology. His research activities focus on tree/ecosystem adaptive responses to environmental variation. He has a particular interest in the responses of northern and high-elevation forests to climate change
Sybille Haeussler is an adjunct professor in Ecosystem Science and Management at UNBC and an Associate Researcher with the Bulkley Valley Research Centre in Smithers, BC. Her research concerns the dynamics, diversity and resilience of terrestrial ecosystems of northern BC, with a focus on the restoration of rare ecosystems (whitebark pine, floodplains and grasslands) and on the effects of silvicultural practices on forest plant communities. Dr. Haeussler holds degrees from UBC, Oregon State and the Université du Québec à Montréal.
Greg Halseth is a Professor in the Geography Program at UNBC and is the Canada Research Chair in Rural and Small Town Studies. His research examines rural and small town community development, and community strategies for coping with social and economic change. With a focus upon northern B.C.’s resource-based towns, he has research links in Australia, New Zealand, the Nordic countries, Russia, Japan, South Africa, and the European Union.
People profile: https://www.unbc.ca/people/hanlon-dr-neil-0
Faculty page: https://www.unbc.ca/neil-hanlon/
Research page: https://www.unbc.ca/neil-hanlon/research
Dr. Hanlon is a health geographer interested in health care accessibility, health policy reform, and the recruitment and retention of health professionals. His research focuses primarily on communities and regions whose economies are highly dependent on natural resource extraction.
Dr. Hartley's research interest is in wood quality (ultra-structure and anatomy) and wood physics (wood-water interactions, diffusion, sorption, lumber drying and NMR) pertaining to forest products issues for Northern British Columbia. He has a keen interest in examining wood properties based on wood characteristics and how it pertains to processing issues.
Doug's research interests center on how the risk of predation from wolves and bears affects the behaviour and population dynamics of caribou, moose and mountain goats.
Steve’s primary research interests include the production of bioenergy and biofuels from forest industry by-products, with an emphasis on the optimization of fermentation processes. Other research interests are waste and wastewater treatment, including biological, physical and chemical treatment processes.
Dr. Huber studies the interactions between insects and plants with a specific focus on the ability of forest pest insects to withstand the defensive toxins produced by trees. Because of the complexity of insect/plant interactions, his work involves field research, molecular biology, and analytical chemistry. Current projects include: 1) Host colonization and overwintering of bark beetles, 2) bark beetle genomics, 3) conifer chemical defenses against insects and pathogens, 3) aquatic insect diversity, 4) macroinvertebrates in anthropogenically disturbed aquatic systems, and 5) other insect and chemical ecological research.
Dr. Jackson is a meteorologist with research interests in wind and other atmospheric processes over complex landscapes such as mountains and coastlines, and environmental applications including dispersion of air pollutants and biota. A major theme in his research is air pollution modelling, assessment and monitoring using in-situ and remote platforms.
Dr. Johnson's research integrates the disciplines of wildlife, landscape, and conservation ecology to plan for and mitigate the influences of human developments on the environment. Typically working at broad spatial scales using GIS, remotely sensed data, and advanced statistical models, Chris also has an appreciation for field investigations and multiscale phenomena. Current research themes include cumulative impacts of resource development on Arctic wildlife, assessment of species-distribution models, and community-based conservation monitoring and planning.
Dr. Lautensach's research expertise extends into environmental ethics and human behaviour, determinants of human security in the areas of health and environmental support structures, science education and affective learning outcomes, teaching and learning for sustainability, and bioethics education and cultural safety. He is also associate editor of the Journal of Human Security in charge of educational and environmental aspects of human security. As deputy director of the Human Security Institute he is involved in numerous international collaborations. He is currently working on a book about innovative approaches to education for sustainability.
Dr. Loraine Lavallee’s interdisciplinary background includes a BA in history, a Ph.D. in social psychology, and a postdoctoral fellowship in the faculty of forestry at UBC. Her current research work investigates the social factors that influence the individual’s willingness to adopt resource conserve practices and to move toward more environmentally-sustainable lifestyles. She also conducts research in the area of psychological health and well-being. She is on the executive committee of the Environmental Psychology Section of the Canadian Psychological Association.
Dr. Lewis is a forest pathologist/microbial ecologist with research interests in the role of pathogenic fungi in natural ecosystem processes, and the long term effects of forest practices and climate change on forest health. In particular Kathy studies the relationship between biotic disturbance agents and stand dynamics, as influenced by forest management practices.
Dr. Li's interests include soil and groundwater remediation, environmental modeling and risk assessment, environmental systems analysis, environmental pollution control and waste management.
Dr Lindgren's area of interest is forest insect ecology and management. His current research activities involve forest insects and their role or impact on stand or landscape level processes, biodiversity, and host selection mechanisms.
Dr. Pat Maher is an Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Experiential Studies in Community and Sport at Cape Breton University. His research expertise covers three areas of intersection: 1) the meanings that visitors take from their outdoor experiences with remote/polar regions; 2) the pedagogical models that help people action their experiences; 3) and the linkages to global sustainability challenges that result due to changing behaviour and values. Dr. Maher is a 3M National Teaching Fellow (2014), Fellow of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society, and earned his PhD as a Commonwealth Scholar at Lincoln University in New Zealand.
Eduardo Martins has a PhD in Ecology from the University of Campinas (Brazil). His current research focuses on the ecology and conservation of freshwater fishes in temperate and tropical rivers. Specifically, to understand the thermal, movement and population ecology of fishes and how the generated knowledge can be applied to improve their management and conservation. To conduct his research, Eduardo uses biotelemetry (e.g. radio, acoustic) and biologging (e.g. accelerometers) technologies to track and collect data from wild, free ranging fish in freshwater. He also specializes in the use of advanced statistical models (e.g. mark-recapture, hierarchical, state-space models) to synthesize information and test hypotheses based on the collected data.
Hugues received his PhD and MSc in plant anatomy and mycology (U. of Guelph) and his B.Sc. in Forest Sciences (U. Laval). He was fortunate to spend his postdoctoral years at OSU (Corvallis, Oregon, USA), SLU (Uppsala, Sweden) and UBC (Vancouver) exploring the ecology and microbial ecology of forest soils. His research interests are varied, and include exploring the structure and biodiversity of mycorrhizal systems, understanding how amendments (e.g. wood ash, biochar) and/or forest disturbances (e.g. fire, clearcut) can impact microbial ecology, soil nutrients and plant growth, exploring better ways to teach concepts of mutualism and mycorrhizal symbioses in the classroom. Hugues is a former President of the Canadian Botanical Association and has published extensively in a number of international scientific journals. He has been at UNBC since 1994.
Biogeochemical cycling with an emphasis on C and N sequestration in or bioavailability to microbes within terrestrial ecosystems, and exchange of C and N between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Tools and practical applications include, simulation modeling of C and N dynamics, resource recovery from by-products, land remediation, soil conservation, and greenhouse gas mitigation. Recent work has focused on hydrocarbon-induced soil hydrophobicity and transformations of xenobiotics in soil on one hand and modeling of trace gas emissions from soils on the other.
Zoe’s research focuses on the themes of: tourism and ecotourism development; local perceptions of environment and place; consumption (the politics of; the impacts of; alternative forms of); international development and conservation; and justice issues related to inadequate planning and environmental management. Her work is informed by theory from a variety of disciplines but draws heavily from geography, related to: tourism studies; studies of place and identity; political ecology of conservation, development and environmental management; consumption studies; justice, power, and resistance studies.
Brian's research is aimed at understanding how past and present climate change affects alpine glaciers in western Canada and Patagonia. His research group uses airborne laser altimetry and satellites to quantify rates of area and mass change from alpine glaciers. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of British Columbia (May, 2002).
Inspired by his work with field schools in developing nations, Phil critically interprets dominant Western environmental ethics and management practices in ecotourism, adventure travel, outdoor recreation, and outdoor education. He strives to understand outdoor activities mediate sociocultural and environmental learning, and influence socio-environmental sustainability and place making. He is interested in skill development as a way of learning, understanding, and teaching about landscapes, environments, and communities. He continues to examine activities such as fly fishing and canoeing, as well as general camping and travel practices. Phil has expertise in qualitative field research and analysis, particularly related to mobile methodologies that bring together theory and practice.
Dr. Murray's research revolves around three central themes: molecular ecology (conservation genetics), molecular evolution and comparative immunogenetics. This research focuses on the characterisation, organisation and evolution of genetic variation at both neutral (e.g. mitochondrial) and selected loci, with particular emphasis on the immune system genes (i.e. MHC) in aquatic vertebrates (marine mammals and bony fishes) and their use in population level surveys of genetic variation.
People Profile: https://www.unbc.ca/people/nolin-dr-catherine
Faculty Page: https://www.unbc.ca/catherine-nolin
Research Page: https://www.unbc.ca/catherine-nolin/awards
Dr. Nolin's research interests focus on Guatemalan structural & political violence with particular emphasis on gendered experiences of state-sponsored & contemporary violence. Critical development studies enables me to analyze: (1) the ways in which Canada and the Canadian extractive industry is deeply implicated in contemporary violence in the name of development; and (2) the structural violence surrounding control and decision-making around natural resources. Additionally, I have a long-standing interest in transnational forced migration to Canada from Central America, social justice, indigenous rights, and transnational solidarity. Dr. Nolin earned her PhD from Queen's University.
Dr. Opio's research interests include forest management and policy, silviculture, environmental aspects of harvesting systems, land reclamation, woodlot management, tropical forestry and agroforestry.
Ken's research addresses how habitat disturbance affects both reproductive and communication behaviour in forest birds. Using a combination of ecological, genetic and behavioural techniques, he and his students are interested in the impact of habitat on signal reliability, mating strategies and ultimately reproductive output of forest generalist birds occupying anthropenically altered landscapes.
Phil’s research interests are on how water, sediment and chemicals (such as nutrients and pollutants) move through landscapes and watersheds. In particular, he is interested in how watersheds respond to changes in climate, and land and river management, including the effects of wildfire, mining and other forms of disturbance. He has undertaken research on soil nutrient dynamics and soil erosion, and the transport and storage of sediment and associated contaminants in agricultural, forested and mountain environments. Much of his research is based at UNBC’s Quesnel River Research Centre.
Dr. Parker is interested in factors that constrain wildlife species and the flexibility that animals have to survive them. Current research themes include trade-off decisions related to food, predation risk, body condition, and reproduction for ungulates on changing boreal and Arctic landscapes.
Dr. Tristan Pearce is an Associate Professor and Canada Research Chair in the Cumulative Impacts of Environmental Change in the Global & International Studies Program at the University of Northern British Columbia. His research examines the cumulative impacts of environmental change for communities, using this understanding to identify and evaluate pathways for adaptation with a strong focus on the Arctic, Pacific Islands Region and British Columbia.
People Profile: https://www.unbc.ca/people/petticrew-dr-ellen
Faculty Page: https://www.unbc.ca/ellen-petticrew
Research Page: https://www.unbc.ca/ellen-petticrew/research
Dr. Petticrew’s research interests involve fluxes to and in aquatic systems, at a variety of scales. Fluxes of sediment, nutrient and contaminants have been investigated in recent research including 1) the influence of forest harvesting on sediment yields to British Columbian lakes, 2) the transport and storage of fine sediments in highly productive fish bearing streams, 3) the role of organic matter in the morphology and settling characteristics of freshwater flows and 4) restoration of a northern residential eutrophic lake.
Dr. Poirier's research interests focus on insect responses to changing environments. Her research examines insect biodiversity, behaviour, and ecology, including chemical ecology and management. She is particularly interested in the biodiversity of urban and forested ecosystems, and in forest health.
Roy's research interests include determining strategies for mitigating wildlife-related vehicular collisions, brush management, plant-animal interactions, field-based education and considerations for special landscape features (e.g., mineral licks, bear dens, etc.) in forest planning and management.
Michael Rutherford has research interests in several areas related to soil science and environmental science: (i) the chemistry, biology and ecotoxicity of contaminated soils, (ii) biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen, (iii) the utilization of various waste materials for environmental restoration, and (iv) the bioremediation of contaminated environments. In the past, Michael has conducted research into natural-occurring radioactivity (e.g radon gas) in soils and industrial wastes.
Dr. Ryan's research interests lie in the area of environmetrics: the application and development of statistical techniques in the environmental sciences. This area of research allows him to combine his strong belief that we must be more sensitive to the delicate balance of nature, with his academic strengths that include a quantitative, precise approach to problems and an intense curiosity about the world around us. Dr. Ryan's specific areas of interest include: high-dimensional classification, mixed linear models; bootstrap techniques and their application to model building; weighted distributions and their use in the identification of selective stresses on a population; sampling natural areas; and classification using mixed linear models.
Paul’s research interests reflect his diverse career involving both the applied forestry and basic pedological aspects of soil science. His major research emphasis since joining UNBC in 2002 has been the role of soils as a recorder of environmental change in northwestern Canada. This work has involved field studies in Yukon, NWT, and central and northern BC. Most recently, he has collaborated with an interdisciplinary research team to examine the role of soil processes in the functioning of ecosystems and watersheds on the BC central coast.
Dr. Shrimpton earned his Phd from the University of British Columbia. He has interests in the physiological response of fish to environmental disturbance, particularly how physical changes in the environment affect endocrine, biochemical, physiological and molecular factors that regulate growth and development in fish.
Dr. Shultis' research interests focus on the historical and contemporary socio-cultural forces affecting protected areas, outdoor recreation, wilderness and resource-based tourism. Examples of recent research include the impact of neoconservative conservation on protected area management, the impacts of technology of the wilderness experience, the role of the 'risk society' on outdoor recreation and resource-based tourism, and the health effects of the recreational use of protected areas on individuals and society.
Dr. Sui’s main research interests lie in water resources and environmental engineering. Jeuyi has expertise in cold region hydraulics and hydrology (river ice hydraulics and snow hydrology) and fluvial hydraulics.
Tracy’s research interests include: resource communities in transition, the political realities of Canada’s provincial norths, and resource and environmental policy in Canada. Tracy believes that it is important for the northern, rural and remote communities to have access to research that will help them to realize their community vision and goals.
Youmin’s research uses sophisticated numerical models and mathematical tools to predict seasonal climate and put confidence limits on the predictions – a significant new approach among researchers in this field. Previously, he has developed ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) prediction models with the knowledge that more accurate seasonal climate prediction is of vital importance to various sectors of the economy: agriculture, forest management, fisheries, tourism, and power generation.
Dr. Thring's research interests include: - Chemicals, fuels and biosolids from natural resources - Reaction engineering principles and catalysis applied to pulp and paper, polymer, oil and gas processes - Plastics and rubber characterization and processing - Environmental engineering (soil remediation, green house gases control, waste & wastewater treatment) - Value-added processing and product development - Mass transfer with chemical reaction - Mixing of Floating Solids - Biodegradable Materials (production, characterization and applications).
Ul Islam, Siraj
Siraj is currently working as a Research Associate with Stephen Déry as part of his Northern Hydrometeorology Group (NHG). He is also an Adjunct Professor in the Environmental Science and Engineering Program at UNBC. Siraj’s research background is in physics and atmospheric science. His research interests involve climate change impact assessment, snow hydrology, numerical modeling, climate variability and forecasting. He is currently investigating the impacts of climate change on the water resources of western Canada including snow and ice. A major aspect of his research is to develop a better understanding of the water resources in western Canada’s major river basins based on numerical modeling.
Dr Venter’s research integrates the disciplines of conservation biology, forestry, economics and landscape design to understand the trade-offs and synergies among economic production, ecosystem services and conservation in forested ecosystems. He has a strong interest in forest management and conservation issues in the tropics, especially South East Asia, and BC-focused research is currently an emerging area of research for his group.
People Profile: https://www.unbc.ca/people/wheate-dr-roger
Faculty Page: https://www.unbc.ca/roger-wheate
Research Page: https://www.unbc.ca/roger-wheate/research
Dr. Wheate's interests cover the application of remote sensing and GIS across the spectrum of NRES (Natural Resource and Environmental Studies) faculty areas. His main focus lies in the integration of the geomatic sciences, cartographic output, feature extraction and terrain visualisation; special interests include mountain cartography / and glacier mapping using remote sensing.
Todd's research interests are in the broad area of ""bio-inorganic"" chemistry and specifically in the area of reaction kinetics of biomimetic systems. He is also interested in the speciation and functional role of metal ions in the ecosystem; he has a strong interest in the area of the "public understanding of science".
Dr. Wood's research interests include forest and plant ecology, plant anatomy and post-harvest silviculture. Her current research projects include studying the relationships between wood anatomy, climate change and carbon, and investigating the fate of chemical herbicides in forest operations.
Dr. Wilkerson earned his PhD from the University of Victoria. His primary research interests include community sustainability, environmental auditing, information strategies, and the impacts of energy development. Other interests are community and environmental policy, and environmental thought.
Dr Wright’s research focuses on systematic conservation planning, climate-change conscious protected areas and conservation planning, protected areas management effectiveness, the ecological integrity of parks and protected areas, creating a culture of conservation within Canadians, and understanding people’s connections to nature and wild spaces.