Geography (BA and BSc Programs)


Catherine Nolin, Associate Professor and Chair
Gail Fondahl, Professor
Greg Halseth, Professor, and Canada Research Chair, Rural and Small Town Studies
Neil Hanlon, Professor
Brian Menounos, Professor and Canada Research Chair, Glacier Change
Ellen Petticrew, Professor and FRBC Chair in Landscape Ecology
Zoë Meletis, Associate Professor
Roger Wheate, Associate Professor/GIS Coordinator
Faran Ali, Assistant Professor
Sinead Earley, Lecturer
Sam Albers, Adjunct Professor
Matthew Beedle, Adjunct Professor
Sarah de Leeuw, Adjunct Professor
Eric Grunsky, Adjunct Professor
Sean Markey, Adjunct Professor
Marlene Morris, Adjunct Professor
John Rex, Adjunct Professor
Grahame Russell, Adjunct Professor
Ping Bai, Senior Lab Instructor (GIS)
Scott Emmons, Senior Lab Instructor (GIS)
Christine Jackson, Senior Lab Instructor

Website: http://www.unbc.ca/geography

Geography is an interdisciplinary bridge between the human and physical sciences, studying human - environment interactions. The Geography program offers both a Bachelor of Science and a Bachelor of Arts. The BSc in physical geography examines the natural environment and the interaction of climate, soils, vegetation and landforms, while the BA in human geography focuses on cultural, social, economic and rural environments. Degrees emphasise the geography of the North and contemporary geographic technologies.

Geography Program (BA)

Major in Geography

The Bachelor of Arts provides students with comprehensive training in the study of human geography, emphasizing the cultural, social, economic, and political connections between people and their environments. We offer courses that give students the conceptual and methodological means to make sense of the places and spaces they occupy, and how these relate to the rest of the world. Particular emphasis is on issues of community development, social justice, environmental equity, and population health in northern environments as a starting point for understanding the dynamics of place-making in a global context.

The minimum requirement for the completion of a Bachelor of Arts with a major in Geography is 120 credit hours.

Program Requirements

Lower Division Requirement

100 Level
GEOG 100-3Environments and People: The Geography of Natural Hazards
GEOG 101-3Human Geographies of Global Change

200 Level
GEOG 200-3British Columbia: People and Places
GEOG 203-3Roots, Ruggedness, and Rituals: A Geography of Canada
GEOG 204-3Introduction to GIS for the Social Sciences
GEOG 210-3Geomorphology
STAT 240-3Basic Statistics
     or ECON 205-3Statistics for Social and Management Sciences
Four of:
GEOG 202-3Economic Geography of Resources and Sustainability
GEOG 205-3Cartography and Geomatics
GEOG 206-3Society and Space
GEOG 209-3Migration and Settlement
GEOG 220-3World Regions: Latin America and the Caribbean
GEOG 222-3 World Regions: Russia

Upper Division Requirement

300 Level

ENPL 319-3Social Research Methods
     or ORTM 310-3Research Methods and Analysis
Five of:
GEOG 300-3Geographic Information Systems
GEOG 301-3Cultural Geography
GEOG 305-3Political Ecology
GEOG 306-3Geography of International Development: Places, People, Policies, and Promises
GEOG 307-3Changing Arctic: Human and Environmental Systems
GEOG 308-3Environments of Health and Care
Geography Field School 

400 Level
ENVS 414-3Environmental and Professional Ethics
     or COMM 332-3Business and Professional Ethics
     or POLS 317-3Moral Philosophy
Five of:
GEOG 401-3Tenure, Conflict, and Resource Geography
GEOG 403-3First Nations and Indigenous Geography
GEOG 413-3Advanced GIS
GEOG 420-3Geographies of Environmental Justice
GEOG 424-3Social Geography of Northern Communities
GEOG 426-3Geographies of Culture, Rights and Power
GEOG 428-3Health Geography in Practice
GEOG 432-3Remote Sensing
GEOG 498-(1-3)Special Topics
GEOG 499-(3-6)Independent Studies
Elective and Academic Breadth Requirement

Elective credit hours as necessary to ensure completion of a minimum of 120 credit hours, of which 24 credit hours in any subject must be at the 300 or 400 level, including any additional credit hours necessary to meet the Academic Breadth requirement of the University (see Academic Regulation 15).

Major in Public Administration and Community Development

The Public Administration and Community Development major gives students the skills required to function within a range of groups, organizations, and offices. Graduates are able to interact with appropriate professionals, receive their input and reports, and collate a wide range of information and material in service of their group/organization/office. Skills in analysis and synthesis are complemented by an ability to work cooperatively and effectively, and an ability to communicate clearly through written, oral, and graphic media.

The Public Administration and Community Development major requires completion of 120 credit hours, 48 of which must be at the upper division. At the lower division, students must take the seven required courses and a minimum of one course from each of the seven categories. At the upper division, students must take the four required courses and a minimum of one course from each of the seven categories. To complete the 120 credit hours, students must take 45 credit hours of electives, of which 15 credit hours must be at the upper division.

It is possible for students to organize their course choices (categories and electives) to achieve a "specialization" of course work. An Area of Specialization requires eight courses (24 credit hours) in one of the following:
Program Requirements

Lower-Division Requirements

Required:
Introduction to Canadian Business
ECON 100-3Microeconomics
ECON 101-3Macroeconomics
ENPL 104-3Introduction to Planning
FNST 100-3Aboriginal Peoples of Canada
GEOG 101-3Human Geographies of Global Change
POLS 100-3Contemporary Political Issues

Select ONE course from each category below:
Community:
GEOG 206-3Society and Space
Migration and Settlement
Contemporary Challenges Facing Aboriginal Communities
Public Administration:
ECON 210-3Introduction to Health Economics and Policy
POLS 255-3Introduction to Law in Canada
SOCW 201-3Introduction to Social Welfare
Governance:
ENVS 101-3Introduction to Environmental Citizenship
Public Law in Canada
POLS 200-3Canadian Government and Politics
POLS 257-3Public Law in Canada
 First Nations:
FNST 200-3Perspectives in First Nations Studies
FNST 249-3Aboriginal Resource Planning
    or ENPL 208-3First Nations Community and Environmental Planning
HIST 215-3Global History of Indigenous People

Methods:
ECON 205-3   Statistics for Business and the Social  Sciences
ENPL 204-3   Principles and Practices of Planning
ENPL 206-3   Planning Analysis and Techniques
FNST 200-3   Perspectives in First Nations Studies
FNST 203-3   Introduction to Traditional Environmental Knowledge
GEOG 204-3   Introduction to GIS for the Social Sciences
GEOG 205-3    Cartography and Geomatics
 Economic:
COMM 230-3Organizational Behaviour
GEOG 202-3Economic Geography of Resources and Sustainability
ORTM 200-3Sustainable Outdoor Recreation and Tourism
 General:
ANTH 102-3Anthropology: A World of Discovery
ARTS 102-3Research Writing
COMM 240-3Introduction to Marketing
ECON 220-3Global Economic Shifts
POLS 290-3Research and Writing for Political Science
ORTM 100-3Foundations of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism
Upper-Division Requirements

Required:
ENPL 313-3Rural Community Economic Development
POLS 332-3Community Development
POLS 403-3Social and Health Policy and Administration
GEOG 424-3Social Geography of Northern Communities
 
Select ONE course from each category below:

Community:
ANTH 316-3The Social Theory and Structure of Contemporary Canadian Society
COMM 302-3Entrepreneurship
ENPL 301-3Sustainable Communities: Structure and Sociology
GEOG 301-3Cultural Geography
ORTM 407-3Recreation, Tourism, and Communities
POLS 434-3Resource Communities in Transition
SOCW 437-3Social Work with Groups and Communities
SOCW 457-3Individual and Community Wellness
 Public Administration:
COMM 330-3Human Resources Management
ENPL 304-3Mediation, Negotiation, Public Participation
ENPL 401-3Environmental Law
POLS 302-3How Government Works
Society, Policy, and Administration of Natural Resources
Local Services and Public Policy
Local Government Finance
SOCW 435-3Community Social Policy 
SOCW 455-3First Nations Governance and Social Policy
 Governance:
ANTH 410-3Theory of Nation and State
ENVS 326-3Natural Resources, Environmental Issues and Public Engagement
GEOG 305-3Political Ecology
POLS 316-3Municipal Government and Politics
POLS 320-3Canadian Politics and Policy
POLS 333-3Politics and Government of BC
Law and Municipal Government
 First Nations:
ANTH 404-3Comparative Study of Indigenous Peoples of the World
ENPL 409-3Advanced First Nations Community and Environment Planning
FNST 304-3Indigenous Environmental Philosophy
GEOG 403-3First Nations and Indigenous Geography
GEOG 426-3Geographies of Culture, Rights and Power
HIST 390-3Aboriginal People of Canada
NREM 303-3First Nations Approaches to Resource Management
ORTM 306-3Indigenous Tourism and Recreation
POLS 415-3Comparative Northern Development
Methods:
ANTH 421-(3-6)Ethnographic Field Methods
ENPL 305-3Envrionmental Impact Assessment
ENPL 319-3Social Research Methods
FNST 300-3Research Methods in First Nations Studies
ORTM 310-3Research Methods and Analysis
 Economics:
COMM 303-3Introduction to International Business
ECON 305-3Environmental Economics and Environmental Policy
ECON 307-3Northern BC in the Global Economy
ECON 331-3Forestry Economics
GEOG 401-3Tenure, Conflict and Resource Geography
 
General:
COMM 332-3Business and Professional Ethics
COMM 340-3Marketing Communications
COMM 342-3Services Marketing
ENVS 414-3Environmental and Professional Ethics
FNST 451-3Traditional Use Studies
FNST 498-3Special Topics in First Nations Studies
GEOG 200-3British Columbia: People and Places
GEOG 308-3Environments of Health and Care
GEOG 420-3Geographies of Environmental Justice
HIST 360-3An Introduction to Environmental History
POLS 327-3Leadership and Ethics in Local Government
 
Areas of Specialization

It is possible for students to organize their course choices (areas and electives) to achieve an Area of Specialization of course work. For the PACD major, completion of a specialization requires eight courses (24 credit hours) from one of the following:

Area of Specialization in Local Public Administration

* Students choosing this Area of Specialization should be aware that UNBC also offers a Public Administration Certificate through the Department of Political Science, as well as a First Nations Public Administration Certificate through the Department of First Nations Studies.

Lower-Division course choices
 
COMM 100-3Introduction to Canadian Business
COMM 230-3Organizational Behaviour
POLS 255-3Introduction to Law in Canada
POLS 290-3Research and Writing for Political Science

Upper-Division course choices
POLS 316-3Municipal Government and Politics
POLS 320-3Canadian Politics and Policy
Leadership and Ethics in Local Government
POLS 333-3Politics and Government of BC
Law and Municipal Government
Local Services and Public Policy
Local Government Finance
POLS 403-3Social and Health Policy and Administration
   
Area of Specialization in Aboriginal Community Development

Lower-Division course choices
FNST 200-3Perspectives in First Nations Studies
FNST 203-3Introduction to Traditional Environmental Knowledge
FNST 217-3Contemporary Challenges Facing Aboriginal Communities
FNST 249-3Aboriginal Resource Planning
or  ENPL 208-3First Nations Community and Environmental Planning

Upper-Division course choices
ANTH 404-3Comparative Study of Indigenous Peoples of the World
COMM 302-3Entrepreneurship
ENPL 409-3Advanced First Nations Community and Environment Planning
FNST 300-3Research Methods in First Nations Studies
FNST 304-3Indigenous Environmental Philosophy
FNST 416-3International Perspective
FNST 451-3Traditional Use Studies
FNST 498-3Special Topics in First Nations Studies
GEOG 403-3First Nations and Indigenous Geography
HIST 390-3Aboriginal People in Canada
NREM 303-3First Nations Approaches to Resource Management
ORTM 306-3Indigenous Tourism and Recreation
SOCW 455-3First Nations Governance and Social Policy
SOCW 457-3Individual and Community Wellness
   
Area of Specialization in Planning:

* It should be noted that the Area of Specialization in Planning does not lead to an accredited planning degree. The School of Environmental Planning offers a professional accredited Canadian Institute of Planner degree. Refer to the calendar for further information.

Required courses
ENPL 104-3Introduction to Planning
ENPL 204-3Principles and Practices of Planning
ENPL 301-3Sustainable Communities: Structure and Sociology
ENPL 304-3Mediation, Negotiation, Public Participation
 
Four of the following:
ENPL 206-3Planning Analysis and Techniques
ENPL 208-3First Nations Community and Environmental Planning
ENPL 305-3Environmental Impact Assessment
ENPL 313-3Rural Community Economic Development
ENPL 319-3Social Research Methods
ENPL 401-3Environmental Law
ENPL 409-3Advanced First Nations Community and Environment Planning
ENVS 326-3Natural Resources, Environmental Issues and Public Engagement
  
Elective and Academic Breadth Requirement

45 elective credit hours in any subject as necessary to ensure completion of a minimum of 120 credit hours (at least 15 of these elective credit hours must be at the 300 or 400 level) including any additional credit hours necessary to meet the Academic Breadth requirement of the University (see Academic Regulation 15).
 
Geography Program (BSc)
Major in Geography

This degree focuses on geography as an earth science, with introductions to biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics, followed by upper-level courses in climatology, hydrology, geomorphology, soils and weathering, and geomatics. This combination enables the understanding of the interactions between the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere, aided by the use of statistical techniques, mapping, remote sensing and geographic information systems. Courses will develop applied field and technical skills for associated career paths.

Undergraduate students are required to take a minimum of 11 Geography courses (31 credit hours). Of these courses, a minimum of five must be upper division. Students are required to take a minimum of 24 credit hours of Elective Science Courses, of which 15 credit hours must be upper division in order to successfully complete degree requirements. Additional electives are required to ensure the completion of a minimum of 120 credit hours.

The minimum requirement for completion of a Bachelor of Science with a major in Geography is 120 credit hours.
Program Requirements

Lower Division Requirement

100 Level
    and BIOL 123-1
Introductory Biology I
Introductory Biology I Laboratory
Introductory Ecology 
CHEM 100-3General Chemistry I
CHEM 101-3General Chemistry II
CHEM 120-1General Chemistry Lab I
CHEM 121-1General Chemistry Lab II
GEOG 101-3Human Geographies of Global Change
MATH 100-3Calculus I
Calculus II 
PHYS 100-4Introduction to Physics I
     or PHYS 110-4
Introductory Physics I: Mechanics 
Environments and People: The Geography of Natural Hazards 
Theory and Practice of Physical Geography 

200 Level
ENSC 201-3Weather and Climate
FSTY 205-3Introduction to Soil Science
GEOG 200-3British Columbia: People and Places
GEOG 205-3Cartography and Geomatics
GEOG 210-3Geomorphology
Basic Statistics 

Upper Division Requirement

300 Level
GEOG 300-3Geographic Information Systems
GEOG 310-3Hydrology
     or NREM 410-3
Watershed Management 
GEOG 311-3Drainage Basin Geomorphology
Geomorphology of Cold Regions 

Two of:
ENSC 312-3Boundary-layer Meteorology
FSTY 425-3Soil Formation and Classification
     or FSTY 315-3
Forest Soil Management 
Remote Sensing 
Geography Field School
Sedimentology 

400 Level
Three of:
GEOG 405-3Fluvial Geomorphology
GEOG 411-3Quaternary and Surficial Geology
GEOG 413-3Advanced GIS
GEOG 414-3Weathering Processes
GEOG 457-3Advanced Remote Sensing
Climate Change and Global Warming
Elective and Academic Breadth Requirement
Science Electives 

Nine credit hours of Science electives at any level and fifteen credit hours of Science electives at the 300 or 400 level.

Elective Science Courses
Anthropology:
ANTH 100-3Archaeological and Biological Approaches
ANTH 200-3Biological Anthropology
ANTH 205-3Introduction to Archaeology
ANTH 220-3Introduction to Primatology
ANTH 301-3Archaeological Lab Methods
ANTH 311-3
Nutritional Anthropology 
Human Adaptability 
Biology of Circumpolar Peoples 
Races, Racism and Human Biology 
Biology:

All courses allowed

Chemistry:

All courses allowed

Computer Science:

All courses allowed
Environmental Planning:
ENPL 305-3Environmental Impact Assessment
ENPL 402-3Terrain Assessment
Environmental Science:

The following courses are allowed:
ENGR 350-3Fluid Mechanics
ENGR 451-3Groundwater Hydrology
ENSC 202-3Introduction to Aquatic Systems
Northern Contaminated Environments 
ENSC 312-3Biometeorology
Waste Management 
ENSC 406-3Environmental Modelling
ENSC 408-3Storms
ENSC 412-3Air Pollution
ENSC 418-3Environmental Measurement and Analysis
Climate Change and Global Warming
Geophysical Data Analysis 
Reclamation and Remediation of Disturbed Environments 
Environmental Resource Management and Decision Making 
Snow and Ice 
Forestry:

All courses allowed

Geography:

The following courses are allowed:
GEOG 312-3Geomorphology of Cold Regions
GEOG 333-3Geography Field School
GEOG 320-3Sedimentology
GEOG 405-3Fluvial Geomorphology
GEOG 411-3Quaternary Surficial Geology
GEOG 413-3Advanced GIS
GEOG 414-3Weathering Processes
GEOG 432-3Remote Sensing
Advanced Remote Sensing 
 
Math:

All courses allowed

Natural Resources Management:

The following courses are allowed:
Field Skills 
Introduction to Natural Resources Management and Conservation 
NREM 203-3Resource Inventories and Measurement
NREM 204-3Introduction to Wildlife and Fisheries
Integrated Resource Management 
Field Applications in Resource Management 
Physics:

All courses allowed

General Electives

Electives at any level in any subject sufficient to ensure completion of a minimum of 120 credit hours, including any additional credits necessary to meet the Academic Breadth requirement of the University (see Academic Regulation 15).

Joint Major in Anthropology/Geography (BA)

See Calendar entry under Anthropology.

Minor in Geomorphology
A minor in Geomorphology is appropriate for students who wish to obtain a level of competence in the history of Earth's landscapes, surface processes and environmental change. The minor consists of key courses which, when taken together, provide a degree of proficiency in a field that is actively sought after by environmental consulting firms and government agencies.

A maximum of two courses (six credit hours) used to fulfill program requirements for a major or another minor may also be used to fulfill requirements for a minor in Geomorphology.

The minimum requirement for the completion of the minor in Geomorphology is 18 credit hours.

Requirements
GEOG 210-3Geomorphology
GEOG 311-3Drainage Basin Geomorphology

Four of:
GEOG 310-3Hydrology
GEOG 312-3Geomorphology of Cold Regions
GEOG 405-3Fluvial Geomorphology
GEOG 411-3Quaternary and Surficial Geology
GEOG 300-3Geographic Information Systems
     or GEOG 413-3Advanced GIS
     or GEOG 432-3Remote Sensing
GEOG 414-3Weathering Processes
FSTY 205-3Introduction to Soil Science
     or FSTY 425-3Soil Formation and Classification

Minor in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)

The aim of the minor is to provide a level of competence in, and exposure to, a combination of courses in Geographic Information Systems and Computer Science technologies. Combining these selected courses in Geography and Computer Science will provide a level of proficiency in geographic data processing and analysis suitable for careers in the GIS industry.

The three required Geography courses are the core of the minor, along with four additional courses selected from a list of GIS courses and Computer Science courses, CPSC 110-3 (Introduction to Computer Systems and Programming) CPSC 126-3 (Introduction to Computing) and CPSC 344-3 (Data Communications and Networking) are aimed at those not majoring in Computer Science.

A maximum of two courses (6 credit hours) at or above the 200 level used to fulfill program requirements for a major or another minor may also be used to fulfill requirements for a minor in GIS.

The minimum requirement for the completion of the minor in GIS is 21 credit hours, of which at least 12 credit hours must be upper-division credits.

Requirements
GEOG 205-3Cartography and Geomatics
GEOG 300-3Geographic Information Systems
GEOG 432-3Remote Sensing
Four from the list below, include at least one in GEOG/ENPL and two in CPSC:
Introduction to GIS for the Social Sciences 
Spatial Planning with Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
Advanced GIS
Advanced Remote Sensing 
CPSC 100-4Computer Programming I
     or CPSC 110-3Introduction to Computer Systems and Programming
CPSC 126-3Introduction to Computing
CPSC 270-3Human Interface Design
CPSC 324-3Introduction to Database Systems
CPSC 350-3Introduction to Computer Graphics
CPSC 344-3Data Communications and Networking
    or COMM 353-3Business Data Communications and Networking
    or CPSC 444-3Computer Networks


Minor in Physical Geography

A minor in Physical Geography is appropriate for students who seek a broad-based exposure to earth and environmental sciences. Prospective teachers, human geographers, and government agency and environmental consulting employees will find the study of Earth's processes and the natural environment beneficial to their future careers. The minor consists of a group of courses which, when taken together, provide a degree of proficiency in Physical Geography.

A maximum of two courses (six credit hours) used to fulfill program requirements for a major or another minor may also be used to fulfill requirements for a minor in Physical Geography.

The minimum requirement for the completion of the minor in Physical Geography is 18 credit hours.

Requirements
GEOG 210-3Geomorphology
FSTY 205-3Introduction to Soil Science
ENSC 201-3Weather and Climate

Three of*:
ENSC 312-3Biometeorology
     or ENSC 408-3Storms
GEOG 300-3Geographic Information Systems
   or GEOG 413-3Advanced GIS
   or GEOG 432-2 Remote Sensing
GEOG 310-3Hydrology
     or GEOG 405-3  Fluvial Geomorphology
GEOG 311-3Drainage Basin Geomorphology
GEOG 312-3Geomorphology of Cold Regions
GEOG 411-3Quaternary and Surficial Geology
GEOG 414-3Weathering Processes

*Note:  Courses used to fulfill requirements for a major or another minor may not be used to fulfill this requirement. Where students have the three required courses included in their major, they shall take four of the alternatives from the above list.

Minor in Human Geography

The aim of the minor is to show a level of competence in a theme, field or program direction that a student feels would be beneficial to her/his career and which would be ancillary to the major. By designating this group of courses as a minor the student is able to demonstrate a level of proficiency in that field.

The minor in Human Geography is designed to provide the student with:
  1. an introduction to the basics of Human Geography;
  2. a well-rounded introduction to several of the key sub-fields of Human Geography; and
  3. the chance to explore at least one facet of Human Geography of special interest to the student at the 400 level.
A maximum of two courses (six credit hours) at or above the 200 level used to fulfill program requirements for a major or another minor may also be used to fulfill requirements for a minor in Human Geography.

The minimum requirement for completion of a minor in Human Geography is 24 credit hours, including twelve upper division credit hours.

Requirements
GEOG 100-3Environments and People: The Geography of Natural Hazards
GEOG 101-3Human Geographies of Global Change
GEOG 202-3Economic Geography of Resources and Sustainability
GEOG 206-3Society and Space
A minimum of two, maximum of three of:
GEOG 209-3Migration and Settlement
GEOG 301-3Cultural Geography
GEOG 305-3Political Ecology
GEOG 306-3International Development: People, Places, Policies, and Promises
GEOG 308-3Environments of Health and Care
A minimum of one, maximum of two of:
GEOG 401-3Tenure, Conflict, and Resource Geography
GEOG 403-3First Nations and Indigenous Geography
GEOG 420-3Geographies of Environmental Justice
GEOG 424-3Social Geography of Northern Communities
Geographies of Culture, Rights and Power 
GEOG 428-3Health Geography in Practice

Minor in Global Environmental Change

See Calendar entry under Environmental Studies.