Publications

RRN2

2019

MacLeod, M.L.P., Stewart, N.J., Kosteniuk, J.G., Penz, K.L., Olynick, J., Karunanayake, C.P., Banner, D., Wilson, E., Kulig, J.C., Labrecque, ME, Moffitt, P., Jahner, S., Garraway, L. (2019). Rural and remote licensed practical nurses' perceptions of working below their legislated scope of practice. Nursing Leadership, 32(1), 8-19. doi:10.12927/cjnl.2019.25852

MacLeod, M.L.P., Stewart, N.J., Kosteniuk, J.G., Penz, K.L., Olynick, J., Karunanayake, C.P., Kilpatrick, K., Kulig, J.C., Martin-Misener, R., Koren, I., Zimmer, L.V., Van Pelt, L., Garraway, L. (2019). Rural and remote registered nurses' perceptions of working beyond their legislated scope of practice. Nursing Leadership, 32(1), 20-9. doi:10.12927/cjnl.2019.25851

MacLeod, M., Kulig, J. & Stewart, N. (2019, May 13). Lessons from 20 years of research on nursing practice in rural and remote Canada. Canadian Nurse. Retrieved from https://www.canadian-nurse.com

Penz, K.L., Stewart, N.J., Karunanayake, C.P., Kosteniuk, J.G., & MacLeod, M.L.P. (2019). Competence and Confidence in rural and remote nursing practice: A structural equation modelling analysis of national data. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 6, 348-366. DOI: 10.1111/jocn.14772

Penz, K.L., Kosteniuk, J.G., Stewart, N.J., MacLeod, L.P., Kulig, J.C., Karunanayake, C.P. & Kilpatrick, K. (2019). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Job Demands in Nursing Scale and Job Resources in Nursing Scale:: Results from a national study. Nursing Open, 6(2), 348-366. doi.org/10.1002/nop2.215

2018

MacLeod, M., Garraway, L., Jónatansdóttir S., & Moffitt, P. (2018). What does it mean to be a nurse in Canada’s Northern Territories? In Heather Exner-Pirot, Bente Norbye, and Lorna Butler (Eds.), Northern and Indigenous Health and Healthcare (pp. 243-8). Retrieved from http://www.northernnursingeducation.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/NorthernandIndigenousHealthandHealthcare.pdf

Kulig, J.C., Townshend, I., Kosteniuk, J.,  Karunanayake, C., Labrecque, ME., MacLeod, L.P.M. (2018). Perceptions of sense of community and community engagement among rural nurses: Results of a national survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 88, 60-70. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.07.018

2017

Kosteniuk, J., Stewart, N., Karunanayake, C., Wilson, E., Penz, K., Kulig, J, Martin-Misener, R., Morgan, D., & MacLeod, M. (2017). Exploratory factor analysis and reliability of the Primary Health Care Engagement (PHCE) Scale in rural and remote nurses: Findings from a national survey. Primary Health Care Research & Development, 1-15. doi:10.1017/S146342361700038X

MacLeod, L.P. M., Stewart, J, N., Kulig, J.C., Anguish, P., Andrews, ME., Banner, D., Garraway, L., Hanlon, N., Karunanayake, C., Kilpatrick, K., Koren, I., Kosteniuk, J., Martin-Misener, R., Mix, N., Moffitt, P., Olynick, J., Penz, K., Sluggett, L., Van Pelt, L., Wilson, E., & Zimmer, L. (2017).  Nurses who work in rural and remote communities in Canada: A national survey. Human Resources for Health, 15(34). Retrieved from http://rdcu.be/sOoD

Kulig, J., Penz, K., Karunanayake, C., MacLeod, M., Jahner, S. & Andrews, M.E. (2017). Experiences of rural and remote nurses assisting with disasters. Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal,  20(2), 98-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aenj.2017.04.003

Survey Final Reports

MacLeod, M., Stewart, N., Kulig, J., Olynick, J., Jónatansdóttir, S., & Kosteniuk, J. (August, 2017). Registered Nurse National Survey Report: Nursing Practice In Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-01.1

MacLeod, M., Stewart, N., Kulig, J., Olynick, J., Kosteniuk, J., & Jónatansdóttir, S. (August, 2017). Licensed/Registered Practical Nurse National Survey Report: Nursing Practice In Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-02.1

MacLeod, M., Stewart, N., Kulig, J., Jónatansdóttir, S., Olynick, J., & Kosteniuk, J. (August, 2017). Nurse Practitioner National Survey Fact Sheet: Nursing Practice In Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-03.1

MacLeod, M., Stewart, N., Kulig, J., Olynick, J., Kosteniuk, J., Jónatansdóttir, S. (September, 2017). Registered Psychiatric Nurse National Survey Fact Sheet: Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-04.1

Survey Fact Sheets

Jónatansdóttir, S., Olynick, J., Garraway, L., Wilson, E., Kosteniuk, J., Mix, N., & MacLeod, M. (April, 2017). British Columbia Survey Fact Sheet: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-01.

Kulig, J., Kosteniuk, J., Jónatansdóttir, S., Olynick, J., Mix, N., Garraway, L., & MacLeod, M. (April, 2017). Alberta Survey Fact Sheet: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-02.

Andrews, M.E., Kosteniuk, J., Penz, K., Stewart, N., Olynick, J., Jónatansdóttir, S., Mix, N., Garraway, L., & MacLeod, M. (April, 2017). Saskatchewan Survey Fact Sheet: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-03.

Olynick, J., Andrews, M.E., Kosteniuk, J., Penz, K., Jónatansdóttir, S., Mix, N., Garraway, L., Stewart, N., & MacLeod, M. (April, 2017). Manitoba Survey Fact Sheet: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-04

Jónatansdóttir, S., Koren, I., Olynick, J., Mix, N., Garraway, L., & MacLeod, M. (April, 2017). Ontario Survey Fact Sheet: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-05.

Kilpatrick, K., Jónatansdóttir, S., Kosteniuk, J., Olynick, J., Mix, N., Garraway, L., & MacLeod, M. (April, 2017). Quebec Survey Fact Sheet: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-06

Olynick, J., Martin-Misener, R., Jónatansdóttir, S., Mix, N., Garraway, L., & MacLeod, M. (May, 2017). New Brunswick Survey Fact Sheet: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-07

Jónatansdóttir, S., Martin-Misener, R., Kosteniuk, J., Olynick, J., Stewart, N., Mix, N., Garraway, L., & MacLeod, M. (April, 2017). Nova Scotia Survey Fact Sheet: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-08.

Jónatansdóttir, S., Martin-Misener, R., Kosteniuk, J., Olynick, J., Mix, N., Garraway, L., & MacLeod, M. (April, 2017). Prince Edward Island Survey Fact Sheet: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-09.

Olynick, J., Martin-Misener, R., Jónatansdóttir, S., Mix, N., Garraway, L., & MacLeod, M. (April, 2017). Newfoundland and Labrador Survey Fact Sheet Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-10.

Olynick, J., Moffitt, P., Kosteniuk, J., Jónatansdóttir, S., Mix, N., Garraway, L., & MacLeod, M. (April, 2017). Northwest Territories Survey Fact Sheet: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-11

Olynick, J., Moffitt, P., Kosteniuk, J., Jónatansdóttir, S., Mix, N., Garraway, L., & MacLeod, M. (May, 2017). Yukon Survey Fact Sheet: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-12

Jónatansdóttir, S., Moffitt, P., Kosteniuk, J., Olynick, J., Mix, N., Garraway, L., & MacLeod, M. (April, 2017). Nunavut Survey Fact Sheet: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-04-13

2015

Kulig, J., Kilpatrick, K., Moffitt, P., & Zimmer, L. (2015). Recruitment and retention in rural nursing: It's still an issue! Canadian Journal of Nursing Leadership, 28(2): 40-50

Kosteniuk, J.G., Wilson, E.C., Penz, K.L., MacLeod, M.L., Stewart, N.J., Kulig, J.C., Karunanayake, C.P., & Kilpatrick, K. (2015). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Primary Health Care Engagement (PHCE) Scale: a pilot survey of rural and remote nurses. Primary health care research & development, 1-15.

2014

Place, J., Paterson, J., MacLeod, M., Archbell, K. & Pitblado, R. (September 2014). Fact Sheet: Nursing Employment in the Yukon. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-01-12

Place, J., MacLeod, M., Moffitt, P. & Pitblado, R. (September, 2014). Fact Sheet: Nursing Employment in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-01-11

Place, J., MacLeod, M., Johnston, S. & Pitblado, R. (June, 2014). Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote British Columbia: An Analysis of CIHI's Nursing Database... Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-01-1 Printer-friendly version

Place, J., MacLeod, M., Kulig, J. & Pitblado, R. (June, 2014). Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Alberta: An Analysis of CIHI's Nursing Database.  Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-01-2 Printer-friendly version

Place, J., MacLeod, M., Stewart, N. & Pitblado, R. (June, 2014). Nursing Practice In Rural and Remote Saskatchewan: An Analysis of CIHI’s Nursing Database. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-01-3 Printer-friendly version

Place, J., MacLeod, M. & Pitblado, R. (June, 2014). Nursing Practice In Rural and Remote Manitoba: An Analysis of CIHI’s Nursing Database. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-01-4

Paterson, J., Place, J., & MacLeod, M. (June, 2014). Nursing Practice In Rural and Remote Ontario: An Analysis of CIHI’s Nursing Database. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-01-5 Printer-friendly version

Place, J., MacLeod, M., Kilpatrick, K. & Pitblado, R. (June, 2014). Nursing Practice In Rural and Remote Québec: An Analysis of CIHI’s Nursing Database. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-01-6 Printer-friendly version

Place, J., Paterson, J., MacLeod, M., & Pitblado, R. (June, 2014). Nursing Practice In Rural and Remote New Brunswick: An Analysis of CIHI’s Nursing Database. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-01-7 Printer-friendly version

Place, J., MacLeod, M. & Pitblado, R. (June, 2014). Nursing Practice In Rural and Remote Nova Scotia: An Analysis of CIHI’s Nursing Database. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-01-8 Printer-friendly version

Place, J., MacLeod, M. & Pitblado, R. (June, 2014). Nursing Practice In Rural and Remote Prince Edward Island: An Analysis of CIHI’s Nursing Database. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-01-9 Printer-friendly version

Paterson, J., Place, J., MacLeod, M. & Pitblado, R. (June, 2014). Nursing Practice In Rural and Remote Newfoundland and Labrador: An Analysis of CIHI’s Nursing Database. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-01-10 Printer-friendly version

2013

Pitblado, R., Koren, I., MacLeod, M., Place, J., Kulig, J., & Stewart, N. (2013). Characteristics and Distribution of the Regulated Nursing Workforce in Rural and Small Town Canada, 2003 and 2010. Prince George, BC: Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II. RRN2-01

Kulig, J., Kilpatrick, K., Moffitt, P., & Zimmer, L., (2013). Rural and Remote Nursing Practice: An Updated Documentary Analysis. Lethbridge: University of Lethbridge. RRN2-02

RRN 1

2012

Kulig, J. C., MacLeod, M. L. P., Stewart, N. J., & Pitblado, J. R. (2012). Rural health. In Community health nursing, a Canadian perspective. L. Stamler, & L. Yiu (Eds). (3rd ed.; pp. 363-374). Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall Canada.

2011

Andrews, M.E., Stewart, N.J., Morgan, D.G., & D’Arcy, C. (2011). More alike than different: A comparison of male and female RNs in rural and remote CanadaJournal of Nursing Management, 20(4):561-570.

Stewart, N. J., D’Arcy, C., Kosteniuk, J., Andrews, M. E., Morgan, D., Forbes, D., MacLeod, M. L. P., Kulig, J. C., & Pitblado, J. R. (2011). Moving on? Predictors of intention to leave among rural and remote RNs in CanadaJournal of Rural Health, 27(1), 103-113.

2010

Zibrik, K.J., MacLeod, M.L.P., Zimmer, L.V. (2010). Professionalism in rural acute care nursingCanadian Journal of Nursing Research 42(1), 20-36.

2009

Kulig, J. C., Stewart, N., Penz, K., Forbes, D., Morgan, D., & Emerson, P. (2009). Work setting, community attachment, and satisfaction among rural and remote nursesPublic Health Nursing, 26(5), 430-439.

2008

Kulig, J. C., Andrews, M. E., Stewart, N. J., Pitblado, J. R., MacLeod, M. L. P., Bentham, D., D’Arcy, C., Morgan, D., Forbes, D., Remus, G., & Smith, B. (2008). How do registered nurses define rurality? Australian Journal of Rural Health, 16(1), 28-32.

Kulig, J. C., MacLeod, M. L. P., Stewart, N. J., & Pitblado, J. R. (2008). Clients in rural areas. In L. Stamler & L. Yiu (Eds.), Community health nursing, a Canadian perspective (2nd ed., pp. 301-310). Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall Canada.

MacLeod, M. L. P., Martin-Misener, R., Banks, C., Morton, M., Vogt, C., & Bentham, D. (2008). “I’m a different kind of nurse”: Advice from nurses in rural and remote Canada.Canadian Journal of Nursing Leadership, 21(3), 40-53.

MacLeod, M. L. P., Ulrich, C. H., Lindsey, L., Fulton, T., & John, N. (2008). The development of a practice-driven, reality-based program for rural acute care registered nursesJournal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 39(7), 298-304.

Martin-Misener, R., MacLeod, M. L. P., Vogt, C., Morton, M., Banks, C., & Bentham, D. (2008). “There’s rural and then there’s rural”: Advice from nurses providing primary healthcare in northern remote communitiesCanadian Journal of Nursing Leadership, 21(3), 54-63.

Penz, K., Stewart, N. J., D’Arcy, C., & Morgan, D. (2008). Predictors of job satisfaction for rural acute care registered nurses in CanadaWestern Journal of Nursing Research, 30(7), 785-800.

2007

Kulig, J., MacLeod, M., & Lavoie, J. G. (2007). Nurses and First Nations and Inuit community-managed primary care servicesNursing BC, 39(1), 14-15.

Kulig, J., MacLeod, M., & Lavoie, J. G. (2007). Fact Sheet: Nurses and First Nations and Inuit Community-Managed Primary Health Services. The Nature of Rural & Remote Nursing, 5.

Penz, K., D’Arcy, C., Stewart, N., Kosteniuk, J., Morgan, D., & Smith, B. (2007). Barriers to participation in continuing education activities among rural and remote nursesJournal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 38(2), 58.

2006

Kosteniuk, J.G., D’Arcy, C., Stewart, N., & Smith, B. (2006). Central and peripheral information source use among rural and remote registered nursesJournal of Advanced Nursing 55(1), 100-114.

Kulig, J. & Stewart, N. J. (2006). Fact Sheet: Aboriginal Nurses in Rural and Remote Canada.The Nature of Rural & Remote Nursing, 4.

Kulig, J. C., Stewart, N. J., Morgan, D., Andrews, M. E., MacLeod, M. L. P., & Pitblado, J. R. (2006). Aboriginal nurses: Insights from a national studyCanadian Nurse, 102(4), 16-20.

Stewart, N. J., Kulig, J. C., Penz, K., Andrews, M. E., Houshmand, S., Morgan, D. G., MacLeod, M. L. P., Pitblado, J. R., & D’Arcy, C. (2006). Aboriginal registered nurses in rural and remote Canada: Results from a national survey. Saskatoon, SK: University of Saskatchewan. R06-2006.

2005

Andrews, M.-E., Stewart, N. J., Pitblado, J. R., Morgan, D. G., D’Arcy, C., & Forbes, D. (2005). Registered nurses working alone in rural and remote CanadaCanadian Journal of Nursing Research, 37(1), 14-33.

Kulig, J. (2005). Rural health research: Are we beyond the crossroads? Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 37(1), 3-6.

Kulig, J. (2005). Fact Sheet: What educational preparation do nurses need for practice in rural and remote Canada? The Nature of Rural & Remote Nursing, 2.

Pitblado, J. R. (2005). So, what do we mean by “rural”, “remote” and “northern”? Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 37(1), 163-168.

Pitblado, J.R. (2005). Fact Sheet: How many registered nurses are there in rural and remote Canada? The Nature of Rural & Remote Nursing, 1.

Pitblado, J. R., Medves, J. M., & Stewart, N. J. (2005). For work and for school: Internal migration of Canada’s rural nurses. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 37(1), 102-121.

Stewart, N., D’Arcy, C., Pitblado, R., Forbes, D., Morgan, D., Remus, G., Smith, B., & Kosteniuk, J. (2005). Report of the national survey of nursing practice in rural and remote Canada. R01-2005.

Stewart, N. J., D’Arcy, C., Pitblado, J. R., Morgan, D. G., Forbes, D., Remus, G., Smith, B., Andrews, M. E., Kosteniuk, J., Kulig, J. C, & MacLeod, M. L. P. (2005). A profile of registered nurses in rural and remote CanadaCanadian Journal of Nursing Research, 37(1), 122-145.

Stewart, N. J. & MacLeod, M. (2005). Fact Sheet: RNs in Nurse Practitioner Positions in Rural and Remote Canada. The Nature of Rural & Remote Nursing, 3.

2004

MacLeod, M., Kulig, J., Stewart, N., Pitblado, R. (2004). Rural and remote nursing practice: Final report to Canadian Health Services Research Foundation. R04-2004.

MacLeod, M. L. P., Kulig, J. C., Stewart, N. J., Pitblado, J. R., & Knock, M. (2004). The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote CanadaCanadian Nurse, 100(6), 27-31.

Kulig, J. C., Nahachewsky, D., Thomlinson, E., MacLeod, M. L. P., & Curran, F. (2004).Maximizing the involvement of rural nurses in policyNursing Leadership, 17(1), 88-96.

2003

Kulig , J. C., Thomlinson, E. , Curran, F., Nahachewsky, D., Macleod, M., Stewart, N., & Pitblado, R. (2003). Rural and remote nursing practice: An analysis of policy documents. R03-2003.

2002

Lazure, G. (2002). La nature de la pratique infirmière en régions éloignées et/ou isolées au Québec.

Kulig , J. C., Thomlinson, E. , Curran, F., Nahachewsky, D., Macleod, M., Stewart, N., & Pitblado, R. (2002). Recognizing and addressing the challenges: The impact of policy on rural and remote nursing practice. Documentary Analysis Interim Report (No. R02-2002). Lethbridge: University of Lethbridge.

ICIS (2002). Nombre et répartition des infirmières et infirmiers autorisés dan les regions rurales et petites villes du Canada, 2000. Ottawa: L’Institut candien d’information sur la santé.

Hart, M., Meyer, C., Kulig, J., Thomlinson, E., & Curran, F. (2002). Health policy development: Connections to nursing – an annotated bibliography. R01-2002.

2001

Lazure, G., & Michaud, S. L. (2001, October). L’infirmière en regions Éloigneés et rurales: Une practique professionelle méconnue, essentielle et unique. Artère, 19(8), 12.

Pitblado, R. (2001, September). Nursing practice in rural and remote Canada: “We’re it!” Hospital News, 14(9): 20.

Pitblado, R., Medves, J., MacLeod, M., Stewart, N., & Kulig, J. Canada Institute for Health Information. (2002). Supply and distribution of registered nurses in rural and small town Canada, 2000.