Gingerich, Dr. Andrea

Andrea Gingerich
PhD Assistant Professor
Email: Office:
NHSC 9-393


Dr. Gingerich joined the Northern Medical Program in 2006 as a small group learning facilitator within years 1 and 2 of the undergraduate medical curriculum. She has since become involved with recruiting, scheduling, and providing faculty development for small group learning facilitators. Her doctoral studies challenged the rater idiosyncrasy explanation for error variance by identifying multiple clusters of consensus within physicians’ variable clinical assessment judgments of a single trainee. She previously completed a master’s degree in medical education with a thesis focussing on assessment in problem-based learning. Prior to 2006 she was sole owner and operator of a multidisciplinary clinic in rural Ontario where she practised as a naturopathic doctor.

Research and Expertise

My research has been driven by a curiosity to discover the sources of rater error in assessments of performance. My work suggests that variable ratings may be less a matter of physicians providing idiosyncratic judgments of a trainee’s competence and more a matter of many physicians each sharing one of a few distinct perspectives on a single performance. If multiple perspectives on a given performance cannot easily be reconciled into a single coherent judgment then it poses a challenge for the use of psychometric measurement models which assume physician raters are interchangeable and that the average of their judgments is the best estimate for the trainee’s competence. Andrea continues to investigate the implications of having differing perspectives of the same performance. She has also begun to explore how physicians can be better utilized as assessment instruments including how their subjective supervisory judgments could be harnessed to inform defensible assessment decisions.

Selected Publications

Gingerich, A., (2015). Questioning the rater idiosyncrasy explanation for error variance by searching for multiple signals within the noise. Datawyse: Universitaire Pers Maastricht. 180 pages. ISBN 9789461594556

Gingerich, A., (2015). Commentary: What if the ‘trust’ in entrustable were a social judgment?  Medical Education. 49:748-754.

Gingerich, A., Kogan, J., Yeates, P., Govaerts, M., & Holmboe, E. (2014). Seeing the ‘black box’ differently: assessor cognition from three research perspectives. Medical Education. 48:1055-1068.   

Gingerich, A., van der Vleuten, C.P.M., Eva, K.W., & Regehr, G. (2014). More consensus than idiosyncrasy: Categorizing social judgments to examine variability in Mini-CEX ratings. Academic Medicine. 89(11):1-10.

Gingerich, A., Regehr, G., & Eva, K. (2011). Rater-based assessments as social judgments: Rethinking the etiology of rater errors. Academic Medicine. 86(10 Suppl): S1-S7.


  • PhD, Maastricht University (School of Health Professions Education)
  • MMEd Dundee University (Medical Education)
  • ND Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine (naturopathic doctor)
  • BSc University of Western Ontario (Physiology/Psychology)