Natural Resources Management (BSc Program)

Kathy Lewis, Professor and Chair
Annie Booth, Professor
Philip Burton, Professor
Mark Dale, Professor
Russell Dawson, Professor
Arthur Fredeen, Professor
Michael Gillingham, Professor
Ian Hartley, Professor
Dezene Huber, Professor
Chris Johnson, Professor
Staffan Lindgren, Professor
Hugues Massicotte, Professor
William McGill, Professor
Chris Opio, Professor
Ken Otter, Professor
Katherine Parker, Professor, and Ian McTaggart Cowan Muskwa Kechika Research Professor
Mark Shrimpton, Professor
Ché Elkin, Associate Professor, and FRBC/Slocan Mixed Wood Ecology Chair (Ecosystem Science and Management)
Scott Green, Associate Professor
Philip Mullins, Associate Professor
Paul Sanborn, Associate Professor
John Shultis, Associate Professor
Pamela Wright, Associate Professor
Allan Costello, Assistant Professor
Lisa Poirier, Assistant Professor
Bryan Bogdanski, Adjunct Professor
Barbara, Cade-Menun, Adjunct Professor
Alan Carroll, Adjunct Professor
John Clague, Adjunct Professor
Craig Delong, Adjunct Professor
Martin Geertsema, Adjunct Professor
Susan Grainger, Adjunct Professor
Sybille Haeussler, Adjunct Professor
Chris Hawkins, Adjunct Professor
Doug Heard, Adjunct Professor
George Iwama, Adjunct Professor
Michael Jull, Adjunct Professor
Pat Maher, Adjunct Professor
Ian Picketts, Adjunct Professor
Thomas Pypker, Adjunct Professor
Saphida Migabo, Senior Lab Instructor
Roy Rea, Senior Lab Instructor

Website:  http://www.unbc.ca/forestry
Websitehttp://www.unbc.ca/outdoor-recreation-tourism-management
Websitehttp://www.unbc.ca/wildlife-fisheries

The Natural Resources Management program offers students an integrated resource management approach with specialization through majors in Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, and Outdoor Recreation and Conservation.

The recognition that management of any natural resource has implications for all other natural resources is a primary driving factor in the undergraduate curriculum for this degree program. Multiple and sustainable resource management is emphasized. The Forest Ecology and Management major is accredited by the Canadian Forestry Accreditation Board and meets certification requirements for the BC Forest Professional.

Government, industry and private experts assist in course presentations. The University has two research forests available to students in this program.

Major in Forest Ecology and Management

Undergraduate students are required to take a total of 96 credit hours of program core courses in addition to a qualified minor as outlined below.

The minimum requirement for completion of a Bachelor of Science with a major in Forestry is 123 credit hours.

Program Requirements

Lower Division Requirement

100 Level

BIOL 103-3Introductory Biology I
BIOL 104-3Introductory Biology II
BIOL 123-1Introductory Biology I Laboratory
BIOL 124-1Introductory Biology II Laboratory
CHEM 100-3General Chemistry I
CHEM 101-3General Chemistry II
CHEM 120-1General Chemistry Lab I
CHEM 121-1General Chemistry Lab II
COMM 100-3Introduction to Canadian Business
ECON 100-3Microeconomics
MATH 152-3Calculus for Non-majors
NREM 100-3*Field Skills
NREM 101-3Introduction to Natural Resource Management and Conservation
NRES 100-3Communications in Natural Resources and Environmental Studies

*Note:  Applications for exemption from NREM 100-3 must be made within the first year of study in any Natural Resource Management major.

200 Level

BIOL 201-3Ecology
COMM 230-3Organizational Behaviour
ENSC 201-3Weather and Climate
FSTY 201-3Forest Plant Systems
FSTY 205-3Introduction to Soil Science
FSTY 207-1Terrestrial Ecological Classification
FSTY 209-4Forest Biology and Silvics
GEOG 205-3Cartography and Geomatics
or GEOG 300-3Geographical Information Systems
GEOG 210-3Geomorphology
STAT 240-3Basic Statistics
NREM 203-3Resource Inventories and Measurements

Upper Division Requirement

300 Level

FSTY 305-4Silviculture
FSTY 307-3Disturbance Ecology and Forest Health
FSTY 310-3Forest Economics
or NREM 306-3Society, Policy and Administration
FSTY 317-1Forest Disturbance Agents
NREM 303-3First Nations' Approaches to Resource Management
NREM 333-3Field Applications in Resource Management

400 Level

FSTY 408-3Forest Practices and Management
NREM 400-4Natural Resources Planning
NREM 411-3Environmental and Professional Ethics
NRES 421-1Professional Writing
   and NRES 422-2Undergraduate Report
or NRES 430-6Undergraduate Thesis

Minor Requirement Associated With Forest Ecology and Management Major

Forest Ecology and Management students are required to complete a minor as part of their degree. The eligible minors will allow students to gain a solid foundation in numerous specialized areas of forest management.

Eligible minors include: 

Minors have different credit hour requirements, but for all minors 12 credit hours must be at the upper division (i.e., 300 or 400 level). Students must ensure that all prerequisite courses have been completed for elective choices in each minor. Beyond the specific minor requirements, students must complete elective credit hours as necessary to ensure completion of a minimum of 123 credit hours.

BSc Honours-Forest Ecology and Management

The Honours in Forest Ecology and Management offers students a higher level of education and research experience for proceeding to post graduate studies. Honours students are required to complete the degree requirements for the BSc Natural Resources Management (Forest Ecology and Management Major). In addition, required hours of electives credits must be at the 300 or 400 level and each student must complete a 6 credit-hour research thesis under the supervision of a faculty member.

Entry into the Honours Program takes place after the completion of 60 credit hours and requires a minimum Cumulative GPA of 3.33.  Attaining the minimum requirement does not guarantee entry into the Honours Program, which is at the discretion of the Ecosystem Science and Management Program.  Maintenance of a Cumulative GPA of 3.33 is required to remain in the Honours Program.

Elective credit hours are determined to be the number of credit hours needed to ensure completion of a minimum of 123 credit hour, not including thesis. 

NOTE: Students are responsible for finding their own undergraduate thesis research supervisor. Faculty members are under no obligation to supervise Honours students.

 Major in Outdoor Recreation and Conservation


This BSc Major in Outdoor Recreation and Conservation focuses on the natural and human dimensions of outdoor recreation and conservation planning and management, within an integrated natural resource management framework.  Emphasis in this major is placed on planning and managing environmentally and culturally sensitive recreation and conservation opportunities in natural environment settings. 

Northern British Columbia provides an unparalleled setting for learning, teaching, and researching the various aspects of outdoor recreation and conservation management.  British Columbia has a large land base and a range of natural environments that support a vast array of dispersed and concentrated outdoor recreation opportunities. The program examines the components of planning and managing recreation opportunities through the study of such subject areas as ecology, integrated resource management, planning, protected areas management, environmental studies and geography (e.g., GIS).  

Students must complete a minimum of 120 credit hours through (a) the common degree requirements, (b) the Area of Specialization requirements and (c) elective credit hours in any subject.

Common Degree Requirements

Lower Division Requirement

100 Level

BIOL 103-3Introductory Biology I
BIOL 104-3Introductory Biology II
BIOL 123-1Introductory Biology I Laboratory
BIOL 124-1Introductory Biology II Laboratory
CHEM 100-3General Chemistry I
CHEM 101-3General Chemistry II
or PSYC 101-3Psychology as a Science
or PHYS 100-4Introduction to Physics I
ECON 100-3Microeconomics
or FNST 100-3The Aboriginal Peoples of Canada
or GEOG 100-3The Geography of Natural Hazards
or ENVS 101-3Introduction to Environmental Citizenship
NREM 100-3*Field Skills
ORTM 100-3Foundations of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management

*Note:  Applications for exemption from NREM 100-3 must be made within the first year of study in any Natural Resource Management major.

200 Level

BIOL 201-3Ecology
ECON 205-3Statistics for the Social and Management Sciences
or STAT 240-3Basic Statistics
GEOG 204-3Introduction to GIS for the Social Sciences
or GEOG 300-3Geographic Information Systems
NREM 203-3Resource Inventories and Measurements
or NREM 204-3Introduction to Wildlife and Fisheries
or GEOG 210-3Geomorphology
NREM 210-4Integrated Resource Management
ORTM 200-3Sustainable Recreation and Tourism
ORTM 205-3 Outdoor Skills and Leadership

Upper Division Requirement

300 Level

NREM 303-3First Nations' Approaches to Resource Management
or FNST 304-3First Nations Environmental Philosophy and Knowledge
ORTM 300-3Recreation and Tourism Impacts
ORTM 305-3Protected Area Planning and Management
ORTM 310-3Research Methods and Analysis
ORTM 332-3Outdoor, Environmental, and Experiential Education
ORTM 333-3Field Experience

400 Level

NREM 400-4Natural Resources Planning
NREM 411-3Environmental and Professional Ethics
Conservation Area Design and Management 
Issues and Trends in Recreation and Tourism
Two of:
Indigenous Tourism and Recreation 
International Dimensions in Recreation and Tourism
Recreation, Tourism and Communities 
The Psychology of Recreation and Tourism
Critical Approaches to Outdoor Recreation Activities
Polar Tourism and Management 
Special Topics
*Note: Students should note that some senior-level ORTM classes are offered in alternating years.

Area of Specialization

Students must choose one of the following Areas of Specialization. Courses used to fulfill common degree requirements above may not be used to satisfy an Area of Specialization requirement.
  1. Environmental Design and Planning
  2. Conservation Education
  3. Natural Science
  4. Applications of Recreation and Tourism
Environmental Design and Planning

Introduction to Planning

Principles and Practices of Planning

Conservation Biology

Mediation, Negotiation and Public Participation

Natural Resources, Environmental Issues and Public Engagement

Society, Policy and Administration

Spatial Planning with Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

Ecological Design

Remote Sensing

Watershed Management

Conservation Education

Introduction to Education

Education Theory and Practice

Introduction to Environmental Citizenship

Critical Approaches to Outdoor Recreation Activities

Plant Systems

Systematic Botany

Ichthyology and Herpetology

Ornithology and Mammalogy

Global Environmental Change: Science and Policy

Plant Ecology

Conservation Biology

Wildlife Ecology

Animal Behaviour

Remote Sensing

Watershed Management

Natural Science

Introduction to Wildlife and Fisheries

Plant Systems

Plant Biology

Conservation Biology

Invertebrate Zoology

Systematic Botany

Limnology

Plants, Society and the Environment

Ichthyology and Herpetology

Ornithology and Mammalogy

Fungi and Lichens

Entomology

Field School

Ethnobotany

Aquatic Plants

Plant Ecology

Wildlife Ecology

Animal Behaviour

Insects, Fungi and Society

Global Environmental Change: Science and Policy

Field Applications in Resource Management

Applications of Recreation and Tourism

Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism

Indigenous Tourism and Recreation

International Dimensions in Recreation and Tourism

Recreation, Tourism and Communities

The Psychology of Recreation and Tourism

Critical Approaches to Outdoor Recreation Activities

Polar Tourism and Recreation

Field Experience II

Internship

Special Topics

Independent Study

Plant Biology

Systematic Botany

Plants, Society and the Environment

Ichthyology and Herpetology

Ornithology and Mammalogy

Fungi and Lichens

Field School

Ethnobotany

Human Ecology

Global Environmental Change: Science and Policy

Field Applications in Resource Management

Plant Ecology

Conservation Biology

Animal Behaviour

*Note: Students should note that some senior-level ORTM classes are offered in alternating years.
Elective Requirements

Electives at any level in any subject sufficient to ensure completion of a minimum of 120 credit hours.

BSc Honours - Natural Resources Management (Outdoor Recreation and Conservation)


The Honours in Natural Resource Management (Outdoor Recreation and Conservation) offers students a higher level of education and substantial research experience for proceeding to postgraduate studies.
To enter the Honours Program, students must have completed 60 credit hours and obtained a minimum Cumulative GPA of 3.33. Attaining the minimum requirement will not guarantee entry into the Honours Program, which will be at the discretion of the Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program. Maintenance of a Cumulative GPA of 3.33 is required to remain in the Honours Program.
Honours students are required to complete the degree requirements for the BSc in NRM (Outdoor Recreation and Conservation). In addition, each student must also complete an additional 6 credit hours in the form of an undergraduate thesis (NRES 430-6) under the supervision of a faculty member.

Note: Students are responsible to find their own undergraduate thesis research supervisor. Faculty members are under no obligation to supervise Honours students.

Major in Wildlife and Fisheries

Undergraduate students are required to take 21 Biology and Natural Resources Management courses (65-66 credit hours). Of these, 14 courses must be upper division.

The minimum requirement for completion of a Bachelor of Science with a major in Wildlife and Fisheries is 123 credit hours.

Program Requirements

Lower Division Requirements

100 Level

BIOL 103-3Introductory Biology I
BIOL 104-3Introductory Biology II
BIOL 123-1Introductory Biology I Laboratory
BIOL 124-1Introductory Biology II Laboratory
CHEM 100-3General Chemistry I
CHEM 101-3General Chemistry II
CHEM 120-1General Chemistry Lab I
CHEM 121-1General Chemistry Lab II
MATH 152-3Calculus for Non-majors
NREM 100-3*Field Skills
NREM 101-3Introduction to Natural Resources Management and Conservation
NRES 100-3Communications in Natural Resources and Environmental Studies
     or ENGL 170-3Writing and Communication Skills
PHYS 115-4General Introduction to Physics
     or PHYS 100-4Introduction to Physics I

*Note:  Applications for exemption from NREM 100-3 must be made within the first year of study in any Natural Resources Management major.

200 Level
BIOL 201-3Ecology
BIOL 210-3Genetics
CHEM 220-3Organic and Biochemistry
FSTY 201-3Forest Plant Systems
     or BIOL 301-3
Systematic Botany 
FSTY 205-3Introduction to Soil Science
Terrestrial Ecological Classification 
NREM 204-3Introduction to Wildlife and Fisheries
STAT 240-3Basic Statistics

Two of:
BIOL 202-3Invertebrate Zoology
BIOL 204-3Plant Biology
NREM 210-4Integrated Resource Management
GEOG 210-3Geomorphology

Upper Division Requirement

300 Level
BIOL 302-3Limnology
BIOL 307-3Ichthyology and Herpetology
BIOL 308-3Ornithology and Mammalogy
BIOL 315-3Animal Diseases and Parasites
BIOL 325-3Ecological Analyses
ENPL 305-3Environmental Impact Assessment
     or ENVS 326-3
Natural Resources, Environmental Issues and Public Engagement 
     or NREM 411-3Environmental and Professional Ethics
GEOG 300-3Geographic Information Systems
NREM 303-3First Nations' Approaches to Resource Management
     or NREM 306-3Society, Policy and Administration

400 Level
BIOL 402-3Aquatic Plants
     or BIOL 404-3Plant Ecology
BIOL 406-3Fish Ecology
BIOL 410-3Population and Community Ecology
BIOL 411-3Conservation Biology
BIOL 412-3Wildlife Ecology
BIOL 413-3Wildlife Management
BIOL 414-3Fisheries Management
NREM 400-4Natural Resources Planning
     or NREM 333-3
Field Applications in Resource Management 
     or NREM 410-3Watershed Management

Elective Requirement

Elective credit hours as necessary to ensure completion of a minimum of 123 credit hours.


BSc Honours - Natural Resources Management (Wildlife and Fisheries)

The Honours in Natural Resources Management (Wildlife and Fisheries) recognizes Undergraduate students who both excel at their studies and who complete the Undergraduate Thesis (normally NRES 430-6).

To enter the Honours Program, students must have completed 60 credit hours and obtained a minimum Cumulative GPA of 3.33. Attaining the minimum GPA requirement does not guarantee entry into the Honours Program, which is at the discretion of the Ecosystem Science and Management Program.  Maintenance of a Cumulative GPA of 3.33 is required to remain in the Honours Program.

Honours students are required to complete the degree requirements for the BSc in Natural Resources Management (Wildlife and Fisheries).  Each student also must complete a 6-credit Undergraduate Thesis (as part of their elective credits) under the supervision of a Faculty member.

Note: Students are responsible to find their own undergraduate thesis research supervisor. Faculty members are under no obligation to supervise Honours students.

Minor in Earth Sciences

The Earth Sciences minor provides depth in areas of earth science that support natural resource management. Students are required to complete 18 credit hours (12 of which must be 300 or 400 level) chosen from the following lists, with at least one course from each of the first three groups. A maximum of two courses (6 credit hours) used to fulfill the requirements for a major, or another minor, may also be used to fulfill requirements for this minor. It is the student's responsibility to ensure that they have the required prerequisites.

Hydrology
ENGR 451-3Groundwater Hydrology
Introduction to Aquatic Systems 
Snow and Ice 
Hydrology 
     or NREM 410-3
Watershed Management
Geomorphology
 
GEOG 311-3Concepts in Geomorphology
Fluvial Geomorphology
Advanced Elements in Geomorphology 
Geomorphology of Cold Regions 
Weathering Processes 
Soil Science
Forest Soil Management 
Soil Formation and Classification 
Biogeochemical Processes in Soil Systems 
Other
Global Change Science 
Advanced GIS
Remote Sensing 
Advanced Remote Sensing

Minor in Forest Recreation

The Minor in Forest Recreation provides natural resource management students and others with an opportunity to gain a foundation and expertise in the specialized aspects of forest recreation while pursuing another major. The minor requires students to take a total of 18 credit hours. The minor has three required courses basic to the field of Forest Recreation (nine credit hours) and a set of elective courses (minimum of nine credit hours).

Required Courses

Foundations of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism

Sustainable Recreation and Tourism

Recreation and Tourism Impacts

Elective Courses

Nine credit hours from the following list with a minimum of 3 credit hours at the 400 level:

Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism

Protected Area Planning and Management

Indigenous Tourism and Recreation

Recreation and Tourism Ecology, Management and Design

Recreation, Tourism and Communities

Critical Approaches to Outdoor Recreation Activities

Issues and Trends in Outdoor Recreation and Tourism

Special Topics

Independent Study

A maximum of two courses (6 credit hours) used to fulfill program requirements for a major (or another minor) may also be used to fulfill requirements for this minor.

Minor in Natural Resources Planning and Operations

The Natural Resources Planning and Operations minor is designed for students primarily interested in planning and operations (and their governing policies) related to the management of forested and non-forested lands. Students will learn about natural resource policy, forest-management planning and operations, environmental impacts of management practices, forest productivity and timber supply, and resource sustainability along with current computer-based management tools. It is strongly recommended that students taking this minor have a background in forest ecology and management.

The minor in Natural Resources Planning and Operations requires the completion of 19 credit hours, of which 12 credit hours must be at the upper division (i.e., 300 or 400 level). Courses used to fulfill major requirements may not be applied toward the minor in Forest Planning and Operations. It is the student's responsibility to ensure that they have the required prerequisites.

Required Courses

Integrated Resource Management
Natural Resources, Environmental Issues, and Public Engagement
Four from the following courses (with no more than two courses in any single program [e.g., ENPL]):
BIOL 325-3Ecological Analyses
Wildlife Management
Environmental Economics 
Resource Economics
Cost-Benefit Analysis 
Principles and Practices of Planning 
Spatial Planning with GIS
Mediation, Negotiation and Public Participation 
Environmental Impact Assessment 
Land Use Planning 
Planning Theory, Process and Implementation 
Environmental Resource Management and Decision Making 
Forest Economics 
Forest Growth and Yield 
Forest Products 
Forest Soils
Advanced GIS
Society, Policy and Administration 
Watershed Management 
Agroforestry
  

Minor in Social Dimensions of Natural Resources Management

The Minor in Social Dimensions of Natural Resources Management prepares students to engage the public and First Nations in collaborative processes dealing with the range of values encompassed within the practice of natural resources management. Upon completion of the minor, students will be familiar with planning policy and practice as it applies to natural resources management, the range of values and social considerations that apply to a number of resource sectors, and tools for soliciting and involving multi-stakeholder interests.

The minor in Social Dimensions of Natural Resources Management requires the completion of a minimum of 24 credit hours of study. A maximum of two courses (6 credit hours) used to fulfill the requirements for a major, or another minor, may also be used to fulfill requirements for this minor. Students need to fulfill the prerequisite requirements for this minor.


Required
Environmental Law 
(additional prerequisites required POLS 100-3 Contemporary Political Issues)
One of:
Mediation, Negotiation and Public Participation
Natural Resources, Environmental Issues, and Public Engagement 
One of:
POLS 332-3Community Development
Resource Communities in Transition
An additional five of the following courses (no more than 2 courses in any single program [e,g,, ENPL]):
Ethnobotany
Introduction to Planning
Mediation, Negotiation and Public Participation
Social Research Methods 
Advanced First Nations Community and Environmental Planning 
Global Environmental Change: Science and Policy 
Natural Resources, Environmental issues, and Public Engagement 
Introduction to Traditional Ecological Knowledge 
First Nations Environmental Philosophy and Knowledge 
Internship 
Resource Geography 
Aboriginal Geography 
Social Geography of Northern Communities 
Topics in Environmental History 
Agroforestry
Sustainable Recreation and Tourism 
Municipal Government and Politics 
Community Development 
Resource Communities in Transition